A Treatise on Domestic Economy Ebook
A Treatise on Domestic Economy
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Title: A Treatise on Domestic Economy
PECULIAR RESPONSIBILITIES OF AMERICAN WOMEN.
American Women should feel a peculiar Interest in Democratic Institutions. The Maxim of our Civil
Institutions. Its Identity with the main Principle of Christianity. Relations involving Subordination; why they are needful. Examples. How these Relations are decided in a Democracy. What decides the Equity of any Law or Institution. The Principle of Aristocracy. The Tendency of Democracy in Respect to the Interests of Women. Illustrated in the United States. Testimony of De Tocqueville. Miss Martineau's Misrepresentations. In what Respects are Women subordinate? and why? Wherein are they equal or superior in Influence? and how are they placed by Courtesy? How can American Women rectify any real Disadvantages involved in our Civil Institutions? Opinion of De Tocqueville as to the Influence and Example of American Democracy. Responsibilities involved in this View, especially those of American Women, 25
DIFFICULTIES PECULIAR TO AMERICAN WOMEN.
A Law of Moral Action to be noted. Its Application. Considerations to be borne in Mind, in appreciating
peculiar Trials. Application to American Women. Difference between this and Aristocratic Countries. How this affects the Interests of American Women. Effect of Wealth, in this Country, on Domestic Service. Effects on the Domestic Comfort of Women. Second peculiar Trial of American Women. Extent of this Evil. The Writer's Observation on this Point. Effects on the Anticipations of Mothers and Daughters. Infrequency of Healthful Women in the Wealthy Classes. Causes which operate to undermine the Female Constitution. Excitement of Mind. Course of Intellectual Training. Taxation, in Domestic Life, of American Mothers and Housekeepers. Exercise and Fresh Air needful to balance Mental Excitement. Defect in American, compared with English, Customs, in this Respect. Difference in the Health and Youthfulness of Appearance between English and American Mothers. Liabilities of American Women to the uncommon Exposures of a New Country. Remarks of De Tocqueville and the Writer on this Point, 38
REMEDIES FOR THE PRECEDING DIFFICULTIES.
First Remedy suggested. Obligations of Wealthy Ladies on this Point. How a Dearth of Domestics may prove a Blessing. Second Remedy. Domestic Economy should be taught in Schools. Third Remedy. Reasons for endowing Colleges and Professional Schools. Similar Reasons exist for endowing Female Institutions. Present Evils in conducting Female Education. A Sketch of a Model Female Institution. Accommodations provided. Mode of securing Exercise to Pupils. Objections to this answered. Calisthenics. Course of Intellectual Discipline adopted. Mode of Division of Labor adopted. Example of Illinois in Regard to Female Education. Economy of Health and Time secured by such Institutions. Plan suggested for the Early Education of Young Girls. Last Remedy suggested, 48
ON DOMESTIC ECONOMY AS A BRANCH OF STUDY.
Impediment to making Domestic Economy a Study at School. First Reason why it should be so made. State of Domestic Service precarious. Second Reason. Examples illustrating. Third Reason. Questions asked. First Objection; how answered. Next Objection; how answered. Next Objection; how answered. Last Reason, 63
ON THE CARE OF HEALTH.
Importance of a Knowledge of the Laws of Health, and of the Human System, to Females. Construction of the Human Frame. BONES; their Structure, Design, and Use. Engraving and Description. Spinal Column. Engravings of Vertebræ. Exercise of the Bones. MUSCLES; their Constitution, Use, and Connection with the Bones. Engraving and Description. Operation of Muscles. NERVES; their Use. Spinal Column. Engravings and Descriptions. Distortions of the Spine. Engravings and Descriptions. BLOOD−VESSELS; their Object. Engravings and Descriptions. The Heart, and its Connection with the System. Engravings and Descriptions. ORGANS OF DIGESTION AND RESPIRATION. Engraving and Description. Process of Digestion. Circulation of the Blood. Process of Respiration. Necessity of Pure Air. THE SKIN. Process of Perspiration. Insensible Perspiration. Heat of the Body. Absorbents. Importance of frequent Ablutions and Change of Garments. Follicles of Oily Matter in the Skin. Nerves of Feeling, 68
ON HEALTHFUL FOOD.
Responsibility of a Housekeeper in Regard to Health and Food. The most fruitful Cause of Disease.
Gastric Juice; how proportioned. Hunger the Natural Manual as to Quantity of Food. A Benevolent Provision; how perverted, and its Effects. A Morbid Appetite, how caused. Effects of too much Food in the Stomach. Duty of a Housekeeper in Reference to this. Proper Time for taking Food. Peristaltic Motion. Need of Rest to the Muscles of the Stomach. Time necessary between each Meal. Exceptions of hard Laborers and active Children. Exercise; its Effect on all parts of the Body. How it produces Hunger. What is to be done by those who have lost the Guidance of Hunger in regulating the Amount of Food. On Quality of Food. Difference as to Risk from bad Food, between Healthy Persons who exercise, and those of Delicate and Sedentary Habits. Stimulating Food; its Effects. Condiments needed only for Medicine, and to be avoided as Food. Difference between Animal and Vegetable Food. Opinion of some Medical Men. Medical Men agree as to the Excess of Animal Food in American Diet. Extracts from Medical Writers on this Point. Articles most easily digested. The most Unhealthful Articles result from bad cooking. Caution as to Mode of Eating. Reason why Mental and Bodily Exertions are injurious after a full Meal. Changes in Diet should be gradual; and why. Drink most needed at Breakfast; and why. Dinner should be the heartiest Meal; and why. Little Drink to be taken while eating; and why. Extremes of Heat or Cold; why injurious in Food. Fluids immediately absorbed from the Stomach. Why Soups are hard of Digestion. Case of Alexis St. Martin. Why highly−concentrated Nourishment is not good for Health. Beneficial Effects of using Unbolted Flour. Scarcity of Wheat under William Pitt's Administration, and its Effects. Causes of a Debilitated Constitution from the Misuse of Food, 94
ON HEALTHFUL DRINKS.
Responsibility of a Housekeeper in this Respect. Stimulating Drinks not required for the Perfection of the Human System. Therefore they are needless. First Evil in using them. Second Evil. Five Kinds of Stimulating Articles in Use in this Country. First Argument in Favor of Stimulants, and how answered. Second Argument; how answered. The Writer's View of the Effects of Tea and Coffee on American Females. Duty in Reference to Children. Black Tea the most harmless Stimulant. Warm Drinks not needful. Hot Drinks injurious. Effect of Hot Drinks on Teeth. Mexican Customs and their Effects illustrating this. Opinion of Dr. Combe on this subject. Difference between the Stimulus of Animal Food and the Stimulating Drinks used. Common Habit of Drinking freely of Cold Water debilitating. Persons taking but little Exercise require but little Drink, 106
Calculations made from Bills of Mortality; and Inference from them. Causes of Infant Mortality. Of the
Circulation in Infancy. Warm Dress for Infants; and why. Investigations in France, and Results. Dangers from the opposite Extreme. Effects of too much Clothing. Rule of Safety. Featherbeds; why unhealthy in Warm Weather. Best Nightgowns for Young Children. Clothing; how to be proportioned. Irrational Dress of Women. Use of Flannel next the Skin. Evils of Tight Dresses to Women. False Taste in our Prints of Fashions. Modes in which Tight Dresses operate to weaken the Constitution. Rule of Safety as to Looseness of Dress. Example of English Ladies in Appropriateness of Dress, 112
Importance of Cleanliness not realized, without a Knowledge of the Nature of the Skin. Foundation of the Maxim respecting the Healthfulness of Dirt. Office of the Skin. Other Organs which perform similar Duties. Amount of Matter daily exhaled by the Skin. Effect of a Chill upon the Skin, when perspiring. Illustration of this. Effect of closing the Pores of the Skin, with Dirt or other Matter. The Skin absorbs Matter into the Blood. Reasons for a Daily Ablution of the whole Body. Effects of Fresh Air on Clothing worn next the Skin. Americans compared with other Nations as to Care of the Skin. Cautions in Regard to a Use of the Bath. How to decide when Cold Bathing is useful. Warm Bath tends to prevent Colds; and why. When a Bath should be taken. Advantages of General Ablutions to Children. Care of the Teeth, 118
ON EARLY RISING.
Universal Impression in Respect to this Practice. Why it should be regarded as American and Democratic. Practice in Aristocratic Circles in England. Appeal to American Women. First Consideration in Favor of Early Rising. Another Physiological Reason in its Favor. Another Reason. Time necessary for Sleep. Proper Hours for Rising and Retiring. Evils of protracted Sleep. Testimony of Sir John Sinclair. Another Reason for Early Rising. Responsibility of Parents for the Health and Industry of a Family. Effects of Early Rising on General Society, 122
ON DOMESTIC EXERCISE.
Causes which produce Delicacy and Decay of the Female Constitution. Want of Exercise. Neglect of the Laws of Health. Want of Pure Air. Objectionable Amusements. Sleeping by Day. Want of Exercise a greater Cause of these Evils, than all the Others combined. Importance of understanding the Influence of the Neglect or Abuse of the Muscular System. Nerves of Sensation and of Motion. Both need Exercise. Rules for Exercise. Importance of a Feeling of Interest in taking Exercise. Walks merely for Exercise. Exercise most proper for Young Girls. Exercise, more than any Thing else, imparts fresh Strength and Vitality to all Parts of the Body. Mistakes of Mothers and Teachers on this Subject. Effects of neglecting to use the Muscles; Effects of excessive Use of them. Effect of School Confinement and Seats. Extract from the Young Lady's Friend. Lady Montagu. Daughter of a French Nobleman, 128
ON DOMESTIC MANNERS.
What are Good−manners. Defect in American Manners. Coldness and Reserve of the Descendants of the Puritans accounted for. Cause of the Want of Courtesy in American Manners. Want of Discrimination. Difference of Principles regulating Aristocratic and Democratic Manners. Rules for regulating the Courtesies founded on Precedence of Age, Office, and Station, in a Democracy. Manners appropriate to Superiors and Subordinates. Miss Martineau's Remarks on the Universal Practice of Americans to give Precedence to Woman. Peculiar Defect of Americans in this Respect. This to be remedied in the Domestic Circle, alone. Rules of Precedence to be enforced in the Family. Manners and Tones towards Superiors to be regulated in the Family. Treatment of grown Brothers and Sisters by Young Children. Acknowledgement of Favors by Children to be required. Children to ask leave or apologize in certain Cases. Rules for avoiding Remarks that wound the Feelings of Others. Rules of Hospitality. Conventional Rules. Rules for Table Manners. Caution as to teaching these Rules to Children. Caution as to Allowances to be made for those deficient in Good−manners. Comparison of English and American Manners, by De Tocqueville. America may hope to excel all Nations in Refinement, Taste, and Good−breeding; and why. Effects of Wealth and Equalisation of
Labor. Allusion to the Manners of Courts in the past Century, 136
ON THE PRESERVATION OF A GOOD TEMPER IN A HOUSEKEEPER.
Influence of a Housekeeper on Domestic Happiness. Contrasts to illustrate. Sympathy. Influence of Tones. Allowances to be made for Housekeepers. Considerations to aid in regulating Temper and Tones. First; Her Duties to be regarded as Dignified, Important, and Difficult. Second; She should feel that she really has Great Difficulties to meet and overcome. Third; She should deliberately calculate upon having her Plans interfered with, and be prepared for the Emergency. Fourth; All her Plans should be formed consistently with the Means at Command. Fifth; System, Economy, and Neatness, only valuable when they tend to promote the Comfort and Well−being of the Family. Sixth; Government of Tones of Voice. Some Persons think Angry Tones needful. They mistake. Illustration. Scolding, Unlady−like, and in Bad Taste. A Forgiving Spirit necessary. Seventh and Last Consideration offered; Right View of a Superintending Providence. Fretfulness and
Complaining sinful, 148
ON HABITS OF SYSTEM AND ORDER.
Question of the Equality of the Sexes, frivolous and useless. Relative Importance and Difficulty of the
Duties a Woman is called to perform. Her Duties not trivial. More difficult than those of the Queen of a great Nation. A Habit of System and Order necessary. Right Apportionment of Time, General Principles. Christianity to be the Foundation. Intellectual and Social Interests to be preferred to Gratification of Taste or Appetite. The Latter to be last in our Estimation. No Sacrifice of Health allowable. Neglect of Health a Sin in the Sight of God. Regular Season of Rest appointed by the Creator. Divisions of Time. Systematic Arrangement of House Articles and other Conveniences. Regular Employment for each Member of a Family. Children can be of great Service. Boys should be taught Family Work. Advantage to them in Afterlife. Older Children to take Care of Infants of a Family, 155
ON GIVING IN CHARITY.
No Point of Duty more difficult to fix by Rule, than Charity. First Consideration;-Object for which we
are placed in this World. How to be perfectly happy. Self−denying Benevolence. Important Distinction. Second Consideration;-Natural Principles not to be exterminated, but regulated and controlled. All
Constitutional Propensities good, and designed to be gratified. Their Abuses to be guarded against. Third Consideration;-Superfluities sometimes proper, and sometimes not. Fourth Consideration;-No Rule of Duty right for One and not for All. The Opposite of this Principle tested. Some Use of Superfluities necessary. Physical Gratifications should always be subordinate to Social, Intellectual, and Moral Advantages. Difficulties in the Way. Remarks upon them. Plan for Keeping an Account of Necessaries and Superfluities. Untoward Results of our Actions do not always prove that we deserve Blame. Examples of Conformity to the Rules here laid down. General Principles to manual in deciding upon Objects of Charity. Parable of Good Samaritan. Who are our Neighbors. Those most in Need to be first relieved. Intellectual and Moral Wants more necessary to be supplied than Physical. Not much Need of Charity in supplying Physical Wants in this Country. System of Associated Charities, in which many small Sums are combined. Indiscriminate Charity-Very injurious to Society, as a General Rule. Exceptions. Impropriety of judging of the Charities of Others, 167
ON ECONOMY OF TIME AND EXPENSES.
_Economy of Time. Value of Time. Right Apportionment of Time. Laws appointed by God for the Jews. Proportions of Property and Time the Jews were required to devote to Intellectual, Benevolent, and Religious Purposes. The Levites. The weekly Sabbath. The Sabbatical Year. Three sevenths of the Time of the Jews devoted to God's Service. Christianity removes the Restrictions laid on the Jews, but demands all our Time to be devoted to our own best Interests and the Good of our Fellow−men. Some Practical Good to be the Ultimate End of all our Pursuits. Enjoyment connected with the Performance of every Duty. Great Mistake of Mankind. A Final Account to be given of the Apportionment of our Time. Various Modes of economizing Time. System and Order. Uniting several Objects in one Employment. Employment of Odd Intervals of Time. We are bound to aid Others in economizing Time. Economy in Expenses. Necessity of Information on this Point. Contradictory Notions. General Principles in which all agree. Knowledge of Income and Expenses. Every One bound to do as much as she can to secure System and Order. Examples. Evils of Want of System
and Forethought. Young Ladies should early discover to be systematic and economical. Articles of Dress and Furniture should be in Keeping with each other, and with the Circumstances of the Family. Mistaken Economy. Education of Daughters away from Home injudicious. Nice Sewing should be done at Home. Cheap Articles not always most economical. Buying by wholesale economical only in special cases. Penurious Savings made by getting the Poor to work cheap. Relative Obligations of the Poor and the Rich in Regard to Economy. Economy of Providence in the Unequal Distribution of Property. Carelessness of Expense not a Mark of Gentility. Beating down Prices improper in Wealthy People. Inconsistency in American would−be Fashionables, 180
ON HEALTH OF MIND.
Intimate Connection between the Body and Mind. Brain excited by improper Stimulants taken into the
Stomach. Mental Faculties then affected. Example of a Person having lost a Portion of his Skull. Causes of Mental Diseases. Want of Oxygenized Blood. Fresh Air absolutely necessary. Excessive Exercise of the Intellect or Feelings a Cause of Derangement. Such Attention to Religion, as prevents the Performance of other Duties, wrong. Teachers and Parents should look to this. Unusual Precocity in Children usually the Result of a Diseased Brain. Parents generally add Fuel to this Fever. Idiocy often the Result, or the Precocious Child sinks below the Average of Mankind. This Evil yet prevalent in Colleges and other Seminaries. A Medical Man necessary in every Seminary. Some Pupils always needing Restraint in Regard to Study. A Third Cause of Mental Disease, the Want of Appropriate Exercise of the Various Faculties of the Mind. Extract from Dr. Combe. Examples of Wealthy Ladies. Beneficial Results of active Intellectual Employments. Indications of a Diseased Mind, 195
ON THE CARE OF DOMESTICS.
No Subject on which American Women need more Wisdom, Patience, Principle, and Self−control. Its Difficulties. Necessary Evils. Miseries of Aristocratic Lands. Wisdom of Conforming to Actual
Circumstances. How to judge correctly respecting Domestics. They should be treated as we would expect to be under similar Circumstances. When Labor is scarce, its Value is increased. Instability of Domestics; how it may be remedied. Pride and Insubordination; how remedied. Abhorrence of Servitude a National Trait of Character. Domestics easily convinced of the Appropriateness of different Degrees of Subordination. Example. Domestics may be easily induced to be respectful in their Deportment, and appropriate in their Dress. Deficiencies of Qualifications for the Performance of their Duties; how remedied. Forewarning, better than Chiding. Preventing, better than finding Fault. Faults should be pointed out in a Kind Manner. Some Employers think it their Office and Duty to find Fault. Domestics should be regarded with Sympathy and Forbearance, 204
ON THE CARE OF INFANTS.
Necessity of a Knowledge of this Subject, to every Young Lady. Examples. Extracts from Doctors
Combe, Bell, and Eberle. Half the Deaths of Infants owing to Mismanagement, and Errors in Diet. Errors of Parents and Nurses. Error of administering Medicines to Children, unnecessarily. Need of Fresh Air, Attention to Food, Cleanliness, Dress, and Bathing. Cholera Infantum not cured by Nostrums. Formation of Good Habits in Children, 213
ON THE MANAGEMENT OF YOUNG CHILDREN.
Physical Education of Children. Remark of Dr. Clark, and Opinion of other Medical Men. Many Popular Notions relating to Animal Food for Children, erroneous. The Formation of the Human Teeth and Stomach does not indicate that Man was designed to live on Flesh. Opinions of Linnæus and Cuvier. Stimulus of Animal Food not necessary to Full Developement of the Physical and Intellectual Powers. Examples. Of Laplanders, Kamtschatkadales, Scotch Highlanders, Siberian Exiles, Africans, Arabs. Popular Notion that Animal Food is more Nourishing than Vegetable. Different Opinions on this Subject. Experiments. Opinions of Dr. Combe and others. Examples of Men who lived to a great Age. Dr. Franklin's Testimony. Sir Isaac Newton and others. Albany Orphan Asylum. Deleterious Practice of allowing Children to eat at short Intervals. Intellectual Training. Schoolrooms. Moral Character. Submission, Self−denial, and Benevolence, the three most important Habits to be formed in Early Life. Extremes to be guarded against. Medium Course. Adults sometimes forget the Value which Children set on Trifles. Example. Impossible to govern Children, properly, without appreciating the Value they attach to their Pursuits and Enjoyments. Those who govern Children should join in their Sports. This the best way to gain their Confidence and Affection. But Older Persons should never lose the Attitude of Superiors. Unsteadiness in Government. Illustrations. Punishment from unsteady Governors, does little Good. Over−Government. Want of Patience and Self−control in Parents and Governors. Example of Parents more effectual than their Precepts. Formation of Habits of Self−denial in Early Life. Denying Ourselves to promote the Happiness of Others. Habits of Honesty and Veracity. Habits of Modesty. Delicacy studiously to be cherished. Licentious and Impure Ebooks to be banished. Bulwer a Licentious Writer, and to be discountenanced, 220
ON THE CARE OF THE SICK.
Women frequently called upon to direct in Cases of Indisposition. Extremes to be avoided. Grand Cause of most Diseases, Excess in Eating and Drinking. Fasting useful. Extracts from Doctors Burne and Combe. Necessity of a Woman's Understanding the Nature and Operation of Common Medicines. Simple Electuary. Discretion required. Useful Directions in Regard to Nursing the Sick. Fresh Air absolutely necessary. Frequent Ablutions important. Dressing a Blister. Arrangements to be made beforehand, when practicable. Importance of Cleanliness; Nothing more annoying to the Sick, than a want of it. Necessity of a proper Preparation of Food, for the Sick. Physicians' Directions to be well understood and implicitly followed. Kindness, Patience, and Sympathy, towards the Sick, important. Impositions of Apothecaries. Drugs to be locked up from the Access of Children, 234
ON ACCIDENTS AND ANTIDOTES.
Medical Aid should be promptly resorted to. Suffocation, from Substances in the Throat. Common Cuts. Wounds of Arteries, and other severe Cuts. Bruises. Sprains. Broken Limbs. Falls. Blows on the Head. Burns. Drowning. Poisons:-Corrosive Sublimate; Arsenic, or Cobalt; Opium; Acids; Alkalies. Stupefaction from Fumes of Charcoal, or from entering a Well, Limekiln, or Coalmine. Hemorrhage of the Lungs, Stomach, or Throat. Bleeding of the Nose. Dangers from Lightning, 240
ON DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS AND SOCIAL DUTIES.
Indefiniteness of Opinion on this Subject. Every Person needs some Recreation. General Rules. How much Time to be given. What Amusements proper. Those should always be avoided, which cause Pain, or injure the Health, or endanger Life, or interfere with important Duties, or are pernicious in their Tendency. Horse−racing, Circus−riding, Theatres, and Gambling. Dancing, as now conducted, does not conduce to Health of Body or Mind, but the contrary. Dancing in the Open Air beneficial. Social Benefits of Dancing considered. Ease and Grace of Manners better secured by a System of Calisthenics. The Writer's Experience. Balls going out of Fashion, among the more refined Circles. Novel−reading. Necessity for Discrimination. Young Persons should be guarded from Novels. Proper Amusements for Young Persons. Cultivation of Flowers and Fruits. Benefits of the Practice. Music. Children enjoy it. Collections of Shells, Plants, Minerals, &c. Children's Games and Sports. Parents should join in them. Mechanical Skill of Children to be encouraged. Other Enjoyments. Social Enjoyments not always considered in the List of Duties. Main Object of Life to
form Character. Family Friendship should be preserved. Plan adopted by Families of the Writer's
Acquaintance. Kindness to Strangers. Hospitality. Change of Character of Communities in Relation to Hospitality. Hospitality should be prompt. Strangers should be made to feel at their Ease, 244
ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF HOUSES.
Importance to Family Comfort of well−constructed Houses. Rules for constructing them. Economy of
Labor. Large Houses. Arrangement of Rooms. Wells and Cisterns. Economy of Money. Shape and
Arrangement of Houses. Porticoes, Piazzas, and other Ornaments. Simplicity to be preferred. Fireplaces. Economy of Health. Outdoor Conveniences. Doors and Windows. Ventilation. Economy of Comfort. Domestics. Spare Chambers. Good Taste. Proportions. Color and Ornaments. _Plans of Houses and Domestic Conveniences. Receipts for Whitewash, 258
ON FIRES AND LIGHTS.
Wood Fires. Construction of Fireplaces. Firesets. Building a Fire. Wood. Cautions. Stoves and Grates. Cautions. Stovepipes. Anthracite Coal. Bituminous Coal. Proper Grates. Coal Stoves. On Lights. Lamps. Oil. Candles. Lard. Pearlash and Water for cleansing Lamps. Care of Lamps. Difficulty. Articles needed in trimming Lamps. Astral Lamps. Wicks. Dipping Wicks in Vinegar. Shades. Weak Eyes. Entry Lamps. Night Lamps. Tapers. Wax Tapers for Use in Sealing Letters. To make Candles. Moulds. Dipped Candles. Rush Lights, 280
All needful Accommodations should be provided. Plenty of Water, easily accessible, necessary. Articles to be provided for Washing. Substitutes for Soft Water. Common Mode of Washing. Assorting Clothes. To Wash Bedding. Feathers. Calicoes. Bran−water. Potato−water. Soda Washing. Soda Soap. Mode of Soda Washing. Cautions in Regard to Colored Clothes, and Flannels. To Wash Brown Linen, Muslins, Nankeen, Woollen Table−Covers and Shawls, Woollen Yarn, Worsted and Woollen Hose. To Cleanse Gentlemen's Broadcloths. To make Ley, Soft Soap, Hard Soap, White Soap, Starch, and other Articles used in Washing, 284
ON STARCHING, IRONING, AND CLEANSING.
To prepare Starch. Glue and Gum Starch. Beef's or Ox−Gall. Starching Muslins and Laces. To Cleanse or Whiten Silk Lace, or Blond, and White Lace Veils. On Ironing. Articles to be provided for Ironing. Sprinkling, Folding, and Ironing, 292
ON WHITENING, CLEANSING, AND DYEING.
To Whiten Articles and Remove Stains from them. Mixtures to Remove Stains and Grease. To Cleanse Silk Handkerchiefs and Ribands; Silk Hose or Gloves; Down and Feathers; Straw and Leghorn Hats. On Coloring. Pink, Red, Yellow, Blue, Green, Salmon, Buff, Dove, Slate, Brown, Black, and Olive Colors, 296
ON THE CARE OF PARLORS.
Proper Arrangement of Rooms. Shades and Colors. Carpets, Curtains, and other Furniture, should be selected with Reference to each other. Laying down Carpets. Blocks to prevent Sofas and Tables from rubbing against Walls, and to hold Doors open. Footstools. Sweeping Carpets. Tealeaves. Wet Indian Meal. Taking up and cleansing Carpets. Washing Carpets. Straw Matting. Pictures and Glasses. Curtains and Sofas. Mahogany Furniture. Unvarnished Furniture; Mixtures for. Hearths and Jambs. Sweeping and Dusting Parlors, 302
ON THE CARE OF BREAKFAST AND DINING−ROOMS.
Large Closet necessary. Dumb Waiter, or Sliding Closet. Furniture for a Table. On Setting a Table. Rules for doing it properly;-for Breakfast and Tea; for Dinner. On Waiting at Table. On Carving and Helping at Table, 306
ON THE CARE OF CHAMBERS AND BEDROOMS.
Importance of well−ventilated Sleeping−rooms. Debility and Ill−health caused by a Want of Pure Air.
Chamber Furniture. Cheap Couch. Bedding. Feathers, Straw, or Hair, Mattresses. To Make a Bed. Domestics should be provided with Single Beds, and Washing Conveniences. On Packing and Storing Articles. To Fold a Gentleman's Coat and Shirt, and a Frock. Packing Trunks. Carpet Bags. Bonnet Covers. Packing Household Furniture for Moving, 311
ON THE CARE OF THE KITCHEN, CELLAR, AND STOREROOM.
Importance of a Convenient Kitchen. Floor should be painted. Sink and Drain. Washing Dishes.
Conveniences needed. Rules. Kitchen Furniture. Crockery. Iron Ware. Tin Ware. Wooden Ware. Basket Ware. Other Articles. On the Care of the Cellar. Storeroom. Modes of Destroying Insects and Vermin, 317
ON SEWING, CUTTING, AND MENDING.
Importance of Young Girls being taught various Kinds of Stitching. Directions for doing various Kinds of Work. Work−Baskets, and their Contents. On Cutting and Fitting Garments. Silks. Cotton and Linen. Old Silk Dresses quilted for Skirts. Flannel; White should be colored. Children's Flannels. Nightgowns. Wrappers. Bedding. Mending, 324
ON THE CARE OF YARDS AND GARDENS.
On the Preparation of Soil. For Pot−Plants. On the Preparation of a Hot−Bed. Planting Flower−Seeds. To plant Garden−Seeds. Transplanting. To Re−pot House−Plants. On laying out Yards. Gardens. Flower−Beds. Bulbs and Tuberous Roots. List of Various Kinds of Flowers, in Reference to Color, and Height. Annuals. Climbing Plants. Perennials. Herbaceous Roots. Shrubs; List of those most suitable for adorning a Yard. Roses; Varieties of. Shade−Trees. Time for Transplanting. Trees. Care of House Plants, 331
ON THE PROPAGATION OF PLANTS.
Different Modes of Propagation;-By Offsets; Cuttings; Layers; Budding, or Inoculating; Ingrafting;-Whip−Grafting; Split−Grafting; Stock−Grafting. Pruning. Thinning, 341
ON THE CULTIVATION OF FRUIT.
Value of Attention to this Subject. Preparation of Soil. Planting of Seeds. Budding, Grafting, and
Transplanting. Training the Limbs. Attention to the Soil. Manuring. Filberts. Figs. Currants. Gooseberries. Raspberries. Strawberries. Grapes. To Preserve Fruit; Modes of Preserving Fruit−Trees. Fire Blight. Worms, 347
Women should know how to take proper Care of Domestic Animals. Care of a Horse. Care of a Cow. Poultry. Cautions for Winter. Smoky Chimneys. House−Cleaning. Parties. Invitations. Comfort of Guests. Flower−Baskets. Fire−Boards. Water−proof Shoes. Earthen Ware. Cements, &c. &c. 351
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